First Family Photos on The Truman Balcony & the Myth Behind It

truman looks at his balcony in 1949 with the committee to renovate the white house

Truman looks at his balcony in 1949 with the committee to renovate the White House. (HSTL)

Bess Truman with her nephew and niece in front of the South Portico before the Truman Balcony was added.

Bess Truman with her nephew and niece in front of the South Portico before the Truman Balcony was added.

“If you can’t stand the heat,” President Harry Truman famously remarked about political life in Washington, “get out of the kitchen.”

“And head to the balcony,” he might well have added.

President Obama pointing out some of the monuments of Washington from the Truman Balcony to British Prime Minister David Cameron. (WH)

President Obama pointing out some of the monuments of Washington from the Truman Balcony to British Prime Minister David Cameron. (WH)

Last fall, President Obama made it quite clear. It isn’t the kitchen’s phenomenal fruit pies. It isn’t the cabins at Camp David. And it isn’t the pool, tennis or basketball court. The best part about being President is having the Truman Balcony to use for his weekly “date nights” with First Lady Michelle Obama.

Yet even on their own “back porch,” Presidential Families can have their troubles with “neighbors.” As reporter Michael Lewis wrote of his interview with the President in the October 2012 Vanity Fair:

“His favorite place turns out to be the . And we go out on the Truman Balcony. He explains to me how he will just come out here at night and sit, and he likes it so much because it’s the only place he gets where he feels outside the bubble. And this was one of the spine-tingling moments I had with him. Because while we’re talking about how this is the normal place, how he and Michelle can come out and have a drink on the patio at midnight, and no one knows they’re there kind of thing, he turns around and he points to the spot — it’s right behind his head — where a year ago….[A gunman] shot down from across the South Lawn, and the bullet hit the window right where Obama sits when he’s having his moment of privacy and peace. And I thought, there’s the presidency for you. You know, here is the place where you regard as the safe place, the place you can come and be comfortable and be normal, and people are still shooting at you.”

Still, Obama can thank Harry Truman for the relief of the balcony.

Richard Nixon's 1972 letter to Bess Truman (HSTL).

Richard Nixon‘s 1972 letter to Bess Truman (HSTL).

In fact, Richard Nixon did just that.

Or rather he thanked Bess Truman, after he and First Lady Pat Nixon returned from former President Truman’s 1972 funeral in a heartfelt letter of December 28, now in the archives of the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library in Independence, Missouri.

The Nixons visit the Trumans in 1969, the former President cracking a smile as the incumbent President plays the "Missouri Waltz," always associated with Truman, even though he disliked the song - a fact Bess knew all too well. (RMNL)

The Nixons visit the Trumans in 1969. (RMNL)

Dear Mrs. Truman:

A point I forgot to make in our meeting yesterday was that “The Truman Balcony” has been one of the most enjoyable features of our stay in the White House.

I remember the flap among architects at the time it was built. I know nothing about architecture (although I believe it adds to the beauty of the White House) but I do know something about the joys of outdoor living.

Having dinner on the balcony on the warm summer nights is a wonderful experience.

Bess Truman at the funeral of her husband in December of 1972.

Bess Truman at the funeral of her husband in December of 1972.

In that spirit which grows between members of First Families, despite even sometimes dramatic political differences, the incumbent President even invited the former First Lady to return for a visit “home” whenever she wished.

He continued:

I believe your grandchildren would enormously enjoy stopping in the famous house where their grandparents and mother lived for over the years.

Mrs. Nixon joins me in sending our warm regards to you during these difficult days. We were very pleased to see you in such good health.

Sincerely, Richard Nixon

Freshman Congressman Nixon in 1947 (far right), alongside other new House members, including John F. Kennedy (second from left)

Freshman Congressman Nixon in 1947 (far right), alongside other new House members, including John F. Kennedy (second from left)

In November of 1947, Nixon had only been a freshman in Congress for eleven months when a national controversy erupted as word leaked out that President Truman was openly ignoring the disapproval of the Washington Fine Arts Committee and going ahead with his plan to forever alter the south view of the White House as the Presidential families and the nation had always known it.

He was building a balcony on the second floor of the White House, and turning a tall window of the oval-shaped study, part of the private family quarters of First Families, into a doorway leading to the balcony.

The University of Virginia pavillion balconies inspired Truman's White House balcony. (UVA)

The University of Virginia pavilion balconies inspired Truman’s White House balcony. (UVA)

The idea had been sparked on July 4, 1947.

That day, President Truman had gone along with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to deliver an Independence Day address at the University of Virginia, in Charlottesville.

As he looked out from the podium at the pavilions which lined the university’s “lawn” he couldn’t help noticing an architectural detail of the buildings designed by Thomas Jefferson, very much on his mind that day, since it had been the third President who’d written the Declaration of Independence.

Truman speaking at Jefferson's university, July 4, 1947 (Monticello)

Truman speaking at Jefferson’s university, July 4, 1947 (Monticello)

An amateur historian, Truman knew that in 1792, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson had written an advertisement published in the new nation’s leading newspapers, calling for architectural submission for a “President’s House.”

The year before that, Congress had appointed a Board of Federal Commissioners. charged with the creation of the new capitol city, the “Federal City.”

They were offering a prize of $500 and a gold medal to the winning architectural design which they chose for what would become the White House.

And Jefferson, putting aside his political skills and employing his architectural ambitions, secretly submitted his own drawing under the anonymous initials of “A.Z.”

He lost.

Jefferson's losing architectural design submission for the President's House in 1792.

Jefferson’s losing architectural design submission for the President’s House in 1792.

Now, giving a good look at the University of Virginia pavilions, all Truman seemed to see were Jefferson’s balconies.

And, as the Harry S. Truman Library website points out, the President  “imagined that Jefferson might have had such a design in mind for the White House and that by building the balcony he would fulfill the former President’s dream.”

In truth, as proven by his submitted drawing for the President’s House, Thomas Jefferson’s dream did include four sides with long, white elegant columns.

But none of them had any balconies.

Hoban's original White House design had no south portico, as shown here in a 2000 depiction by Thomas Freeman. (WHHA)

Hoban’s original White House design had no south portico, as shown here in a 2000 depiction by Thomas Freeman. (WHHA)

Of course, it had been James Hoban who had submitted the architectural design which won the contest and which the design of the President’s House was built from. But the Washington Fine Arts Commissioners and naysayers who shrieked horror at Truman’s impending desecration of what the great Washington had seen and what Adams, Jefferson and Madison had called home were also equally wrong.

Neither the north or the south side of Hoban’s completed President’s House had any columns, let alone portico.

N.C. Wyeth depicted former President George Washington looking over the construction progress of what would be the White House.

N.C. Wyeth depicted former President George Washington looking over the construction progress of what would be the White House.

When he came to inspect the progress of the President’s House as it was being built, former President George Washington never knew there was a South Portico.

In 1800, when John Adams and his family moved in as the first First Family to reside there, and in 1801 when Jefferson succeeded them, and in 1809 when James and Dolley Madison took occupancy, none of them or their guests or the public had ever seen a columned portico.

After the burned White House was rebuilt, the returning architect James Hoban's design for a South Portico was rendered in 1826 while the Monroes lived there.

After the burned White House was rebuilt, the returning architect James Hoban’s design for a South Portico was rendered in 1826 while the Monroes lived there.

In fact, it wasn’t until 1826, a dozen years after what came to be called the White House was burned by the British,  that the South Portico was finally added on.

Two of Harry Truman’s notable characteristics came together that day in the shadow of the Shenandoah: telling a great story and being stubborn.

Fillmore, no tub.

Fillmore, no tub.

Truman loved telling people how President Millard Fillmore’s only contribution had been installing the first White House bathtub.

When it was finally pointed out to him that the story was, in fact,  a sarcastic concoction of newspaper wit H.L. Mencken, Truman fell stone silent.

Jefferson worked with architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe who rendered an 1807 plan for both a north and south portico, as seen here from an east view. (LC)

Jefferson worked with architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe who rendered an 1807 plan for both a north and south portico, as seen here from an east view. (LC)

A few weeks later, he was telling people the same story. It was just too “crackerjack,” as he used to say, to give up.

Truman hadn’t been entirely wrong, technically. When Jefferson was living in the White House, he had worked with architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe who drew an improved vision of Hoban’s original design, and it did include a North Portico and South Portico.

But still no balcony.

Well, anyway, Truman contended, putting a balcony in would break up the ridiculously long columns. In fact, he had the approval of one of the nation’s most eminent architects, William Delano.

Harry and Bess Truman receiving clcok for Red room on South Portico.

Harry and Bess Truman receiving clcok for Red room on South Portico.

Truman reasoned, Perhaps thinking of how much Bess Truman hated being on public display but loved rocking on back porches, Truman further argued that First Families had to come down from the living quarters and march through the public rooms, open to tourists during the weekdays, and tramp out to the South Portico just to get some fresh air.

They didn’t mind using it for ceremonial purposes, but it was hardly conducive to family privacy.

That was, in fact, true although many a First Family had made do with the South Portico.

Less than twenty years after the South Portico had been built, President James Polk and First Lady Sarah Polk had come out there to pose for history in the first photograph of First Families on the South Portico.

What made the 1846 image all the more interesting is that among the several individuals who joined them were former First Lady Dolley Madison and future President and First Lady, the bachelor James Buchanan and his niece Harriet. Lane.

The Polks with Dolley Madison, second from right, and James Buchanan and Harriet Lane ar far left, on the South Portico. (Eastman House)

The Polks (center) with Dolley Madison, second from right, and James Buchanan and Harriet Lane at far left, on the South Portico. (Eastman House)

In fact, through the 19th and early 20th century, the South Portico was especially popular with First Families, a place with natural sun where numbers of them posed for group portraits.

Ellen Wilson and her three daughters on the South Portico (LIbrary of Congress)

Ellen Wilson and her three daughters Jessie, Margaret and Eleanor on the South Portico (LIbrary of Congress)

Chester Arthur and his First Family, his sister and FIrst Lady Molly McElroy, daughter Nell and son Alan, on the South Portico.

Chester Arthur and his First Family, his sister and FIrst Lady Molly McElroy, daughter Nell and son Alan, on the South Portico.

Franklin Roosevelt's fourth inaugural ceremony on the South Portico. (FDRL

Franklin Roosevelt’s fourth inaugural ceremony on the South Portico. (FDRL

From the South Portico, the President and Mrs. Coolidge along with Mrs. Mix and an unidentified woman and boy, take a gander at Tom and Tony.

From the South Portico, the President and Mrs. Coolidge along with Mrs. Mix and an unidentified woman and boy, take a gander at Tom and Tony.

Well, Truman further made his case, there was the issue of those filthy, no-account awnings that First Families had to contend with. When the Chairman of the Commission made his final disapproving case hoping to stop the President, Harry Truman emphasized those awnings in his sharp response of November 1947:

The South Portico awning shades, Truman argued, were nothing but dirt collectors.

The South Portico awning shades, Truman argued, were nothing but dirt collectors.

“I can’t understand your viewpoint when those dirty awnings are a perfect eyesore with regard to that south portico. I have had them painted; I have had them washed and they have been renewed every year and still they look like hell when they are on the porch.

Of course, I wouldn’t expect you to take into consideration the comfort and convenience of the Presidential family in this arrangement . . . . I certainly would like to have your reasons for preferring the dirty awnings to the good looking convenient portico and then maybe I’ll come to a conclusion on the subject. I don’t make up my mind in advance. However, I’ll have to be convinced.”

Truman was never convinced. The  plan went ahead, the balcony being designed by architect Alonzo Winslow. And the attacks came fast and furious.

Behind the jokes about Truman and his balcony were suggestions of a dictatorial tendency. (HSTL)

Behind the jokes about Truman and his balcony were suggestions of a dictatorial tendency. (HSTL)

Truman was called a little dictator, and certainly the memory of images of Hitler and Mussolini addressing the masses from elaborate and grand balconies had not dimmed so distantly in the public’s memory.

And if that seemed like a far stretch of a comparison to make, the sudden replacement of four Fine Arts Commissioners  who’d opposed Truman’s balcony certainly seemed to give many pause.

After guiding the nation  safety through to the end of World War II, the former haberdasher without a college education who many begrudgingly felt had done as best as could be expected following the monumental Franklin D. Roosevelt was now being ridiculed as an egotist.

He had not even been elected President in his own right by the public, many contended, but merely inherited the presidency as a Vice President, upon the death of President Roosevelt.

Washington reporter David Lawrence wrote a pithy article in January of 1948, which crystallized many of the arguments against “Truman’s balcony.”

editorial against truman balcony

Truman had no sooner had his way than he had to leave the White House – in  an effort to stay there for four more years.  The Truman family had almost no time whatsoever to actually enjoy the new balcony.

A Truman Balcony reference to Truman as his changed the Democratic Party's platform by convention time. (HSTL)

A Truman Balcony reference to Truman as his increased defense spending in the federal budget. (HSTL)

Instead, by the time the mugginess of summer had settled on Washington in 1948, the three Trumans were out across the entire country, barnstorming by whistlestop train and cross-country air flight, in parades, on grandstands and in ballrooms, campaigning first for the President’s nomination by the Democratic Party and then in the general election against New York Governor Thomas Dewey.

The odds were already stacked against him.

Southern Democrats who were outraged at Truman’s intention to racially integrate the U.S. Armed Forces, bolted the convention.

Led by South Carolina’s Strom Thurmond they formed the “Dixiecrat” Party and ran him as its presidential candidate.

The President won the nomination, but nobody predicted he could win against the efficient and smooth Governor Dewey.

The "White House Porch" issue was not ignored during the more serious issues of the 1948 campaign. (HSTL)

The “White House Porch” issue was not ignored during the more serious issues of the 1948 campaign. (HSTL)

And through all of the serious issues debated at the Democratic Convention and the threat they caused to a potential split in party votes that November and the Republican attacks of corruption and wasteful government spending, the issue of “The White House Porch”  was always there to provide a lesson on hubris for those who believed it.

Before Bess Truman could sigh relief that she’d be soon sitting on her own Missouri back porch, however, Harry Truman pulled off one of the great political shocks of the era. He defeated Dewey and won his own four-year Administration as President, the term lasting until January 20, 1953.

But if he thought he could finally kick his heels up on his new balcony, he was also mistaken.

In completing construction of the Truman Balcony, the architect and engineers he called in soon realized that the White House was a serious health hazard to anyone who lived there – and not because of stress alone.

The old mansion, renovated a half-century earlier but without a modern standard of safety, was found to be in danger of collapse. The old soft bricks in place when it was rebuilt after the 1814 fire were crumbling.  The legs of Margaret Truman’s piano had fallen through a wood floor. While Bess Truman was receiving the Daughters of the American Revolution on the floor below, she noticed the chandeliers suddenly starting to sway from the slight movement above, where Harry Truman was taking a bath.

“Imagine me coming down in the bathtub right in the lap of the DAR!” he cracked.

In fact, the wood beam beneath Margaret’s sitting room had cracked and the tiled floor of the President was sinking. The family relocated across the street to Blair House while the mansion was gutted, renovated and refitted with steel beams.

The Trumans didn’t return to live in the White House until March 27, 1952. They would have less than ten months more of residency there and only one summer to enjoy the Truman Balcony.

Harry and Bess Truman reading on the Truman Balcony on a muggy weekend in Washington. (scanned, original Truman Library)

Harry and Bess Truman reading on the Truman Balcony on a muggy weekend in Washington. (scanned, original Truman Library)

One of the original arguments that had been made against Truman’s balcony was that he was not a permanent but merely a temporary resident, and that Presidents and their families who followed might not like the addition.

For the record, every President, First Lady and their family have loved the Truman Balcony and used it for private time and entertaining, as the gallery below of those eleven First Families show:

Mamie Eisenhower waves from the Truman Balcony to Dwight Eisenhower on the President's October 1960 birthday.

Mamie Eisenhower waves from the Truman Balcony to Dwight Eisenhower on the President’s October 1960 birthday.

Mamie Eisenhower's favorite White House view was from the Truman Balcony, especially in spring.

Mamie Eisenhower’s favorite White House view was from the Truman Balcony, especially in spring.

The Kennedy kids were often brought onto the Truman Balcony by their nanny Maude Shaw to watch ceremonies on the South Lawn.

The Kennedy kids were often brought onto the Truman Balcony by their nanny Maude Shaw to watch ceremonies on the South Lawn.

John F. Kennedy, Jr. and a friend watch a South Lawn ceremony from the Truman Balcony.

John F. Kennedy, Jr. and a friend watch a South Lawn ceremony from the Truman Balcony. (JFKL)

Lady Bird Johnson poses on the Truman Balcony. (Life)

Lady Bird Johnson poses on the Truman Balcony. (Life)

Luci Baines Johnson threw her wedding bouquet from the Truman Balcony to her sister Lynda Bird below.

Luci Baines Johnson threw her wedding bouquet from the Truman Balcony to her sister Lynda Bird below.

Tricia Nixon during her 197o television tour of the family quarters, on the Truman Balcony.

Tricia Nixon during her 197o television tour of the family quarters, on the Truman Balcony. (RMNL)

The Nixons enjoy after-dinner coffee on the Truman Balcony, July 25, 1972.

The Nixons enjoy after-dinner coffee on the Truman Balcony, July 25, 1972. (RMNL)

Betty and Jerry Ford on the Truman Balcony. (GRFL)

Betty and Jerry Ford on the Truman Balcony. (GRFL)

First Son Jack Ford on the Truman Balcony, along with Bianca Jagger who interviewed hiim for Interview Magazine, and its editor Andy Warhol, who snapped him for the magazine with his famous Polaroid camera. (GRFL)

First Son Jack Ford on the Truman Balcony, along with Bianca Jagger who interviewed him for Interview Magazine, and its editor Andy Warhol, who snapped him for the magazine with his famous Polaroid camera. (GRFL)

Easter Egg Roll 1980 Amy Carter on South Portico Truman Balcony waving to crowd below - or dropping a water balloon?

Easter Egg Roll 1980 Amy Carter on South Portico Truman Balcony waving to crowd below – or dropping a water balloon?

Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter rock on the Truman Balcony in a picture for Time Magazine by Dennis Black.

Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter rock on the Truman Balcony in a picture for Time Magazine by Dennis Black.

Hallmark Iron Works replaced the white railing on the Truman Balcony with the black one which matches the railing below it on the South Portico.

Hallmark Iron Works replaced the white railing on the Truman Balcony with the black one which matches the railing below it on the South Portico.

There was one other significant change made to the Truman Balcony.

In 1985, during the tenancy of Ronald and Nancy Reagan, the old, rather flimsy looking white railing that had been in place on the Truman Balcony since it was first built was finally replaced with a sturdier black iron one, which matched the design of the one below, which faced the South Portico.

The Hallmark Iron Works was contracted by the United States Government to .

Ronald Reagan waves to protestors outside the White House gate from the Truman Balcony in 1985.

Ronald Reagan waves to protestors outside the White House gate from the Truman Balcony in 1985.

Nancy Reagan acknowledging those welcoming home after cancer surgery. (Getty)

Nancy Reagan acknowledging those welcoming home after cancer surgery. (Getty)

Barbara Bush waves to tourists with several of her grandchildren. (GHBL)

Barbara Bush waves to tourists with several of her grandchildren. (GHBL)

Barbara Bush poses with her dog Millie from Truman Balcony. (GHBL)

Barbara Bush poses with her dog Millie from Truman Balcony. (GHBL)

President Clinton guides his guests, the Emperor and Empress of Japan onto the Truman Balcony before a June 1994 state dinner.

President Clinton guides his guests, the Emperor and Empress of Japan onto the Truman Balcony before a June 1994 state dinner.

Hillary Clinton working on the Truman Balcony. (Vogue)

Hillary Clinton working on the Truman Balcony. (Vogue)

George W. and Laura Bush watch the fireworks display with Mexican President Vicente Fox and his wife, from the Truman Balcony. (GWBL)

George W. and Laura Bush watch the fireworks display with Mexican President Vicente Fox and his wife, from the Truman Balcony. (GWBL)

Former White House curator Betty Monkman and Laura Bush after a luncheon for historians, October 2008.

Former White House curator Betty Monkman and Laura Bush after a luncheon for historians, October 2008.

The last of the holiday cards sent by George W. and Laura Bush depicted the view from the Truman Balcony. (GWBL)

The last of the holiday cards sent by George W. and Laura Bush depicted the view from the Truman Balcony. (GWBL)

The President and Mrs. Obama entertain German Chanellor Angela Merkel and other guests on the Truman Balcony. (WH)

The President and Mrs. Obama entertain German Chanellor Angela Merkel and other guests on the Truman Balcony. (WH)

The President and Mrs. Obama hosting a farewell party for Chief of Staff Rahm Emmanuel. (WH)

The President and Mrs. Obama hosting a farewell party for Chief of Staff Rahm Emmanuel. (WH)

Sasha Obama on the Truman Balcony watching her father return home from a trip.

Sasha Obama on the Truman Balcony watching her father return home from a trip. (WH)


Categories: First Families, First Ladies, History, Presidents, Presidents Together, The Trumans

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10 replies »

  1. As always, great blog and pictures – thank you. I have tried to locate the White House tour that Tricia Nixon conducted – however, I have never been able to locate it – is it available?

    Thanks – David/Chicago

  2. I had read about the Old House being in need of repair, but that detail about the piano legs going thru the wooden floor was an eye-opener! And what a gorgeous view. I can understand how much of a sanity saver that must be to the first families and I how I envy you incidentally for getting the opportunity for being there. Fascinating shots as usual and you took a good one yourself! That was a fun excursion.thank you.

  3. Such a wonderful Sunday afternoon read, and thank you for your diligence in searching for photos. The detail in your post is amazing, especially the replacement of the railing. In the photo of the Obamas entertaining on the balcony, I allowed myself a brief moment of fantasy of being there, and much to my surprise there you were in the next photo! What a dream come true. … Again, thank you for such an interesting post (as always). 🙂

    • What an incredibly generous comment – thank you. And sometimes the effort for such detail seems ridiculous but in the end I hope it makes a difference. And it was a really astounding treat to have gone out on the balcony myself one time. It was especially great doing so along with many others who appreciate the history unfolding there. Again – thanks for such encouraging feedback.

  4. Carl, I found your post about the Balcony and its history to be one the most fascinating posts you have written, followed closely by your personal recollections of the Twin Towers. How do you discover these wonderful bits of American history? I know it takes lots of research, and time that most of us who love what you do don’t have, thanks for doing it for the rest of us like me who don’t know the sources or who don’t have the patience. I love history, I love DC, I love the White House, but as a tourist have only been allowed to see the spaces on the public tour, so thanks for taking us behind the scenes a bit. I most enjoyed the photo of you on the Balcony. What it must feel like to stand there I can only imagine.

    • Thank you Tim – today is a good day for encouraging comments, which I appreciate. I think so much research has been a matter of knowledge gained in the process of writing my books and being an endless wanderer through so many windows of American cultural and history. I think because of the utterly unique nature of the way the U.S. began, and continues to evolve that there’s always something new to discover which has relevance to life today, particularly pockets of regional history. And the Presidents and First Ladies are really the ballast in many respects for leading one to those paths, especially if one enjoys the process of grasping the fullest context and the entire story from every point of view. If you really focus on any one person there’s always some interesting story – and fame and glory are not necessary ingredients for that. I think being a political Independent has actually been of the most enormous help.I have my views but I never narrow my perspective on an issue and never dismiss some person and their view out of hand. And by the way, as long as you are alive you never know whether you might also get to see the private areas of the White House. You never know what path life will wind you down. Anyway, many thanks.

  5. I am a high school history teacher and an avid lover of history, a son of the state that gave us our very own “Captain Truman.” I came across your account of this segment of American history and was blessed by the edification it provided. I applaud you, sir, for this studious effort to provide the masses with a little insight into the Truman family and each First Family following to occupy this structure. You have provided photographic documentation that is seldom (if ever) found in the works of other historians. Your written comments fill our minds with thoughts of what it must be like to call 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue home, amid the struggles of maintaining this residence and a modicum of family life within it’s walls. Thank you for bringing this to us. My knowledge of the man from Independence has prospered from you.

    • Dear Dan – First of all thank you for not only reading the article but making the effort to write in appreciation. I’m especially flattered by your observation of the “written comments fill our minds” – because I strive to do as best I can not just in terms of historical accuracy of information and visual documentation but also, rather especially, as a writer. So that means a bit extra to me. Thank you.

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